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Neuropharmacology. 2018 May 15;134(Pt B):293-301. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.09.021. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Can adjunctive therapies augment the efficacy of endovascular thrombolysis? A potential role for activated protein C.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology and Neuroscience and the Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
2
Department of Physiology and Neuroscience and the Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.
3
Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA; Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
4
Department of Physiology and Neuroscience and the Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. Electronic address: zlokovic@usc.edu.

Abstract

In the management of acute ischemic stroke, vessel recanalization correlates with functional status, mortality, cost, and other outcome measures. Thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator has many limitations that restrict its applicability, but recent advances in the development of mechanical thrombectomy devices as well as improved systems of stroke care have resulted in greater likelihood of vessel revascularization. Nonetheless, there remains substantial discrepancy between rates of recanalization and rates of favorable outcome. The poor neurological recovery among some stroke patients despite successful recanalization confirms the need for adjuvant pharmacological therapy for neuroprotection and/or neurorestoration. Prior clinical trials of such drugs may have failed due to the inability of the agent to access the ischemic tissue beyond the occluded artery. A protocol that couples revascularization with concurrent delivery of a neuroprotectant drug offers the potential to enhance the benefit of thrombolysis. Analogs of activated protein C (APC) exert pleiotropic anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antithrombotic, cytoprotective, and neuroregenerative effects in ischemic stroke and thus appear to be promising candidates for this novel approach. A multicenter, prospective, double-blinded, dose-escalation Phase 2 randomized clinical trial has enrolled 110 patients to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of human recombinant 3K3A-APC following endovascular thrombolysis. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Cerebral Ischemia'.

KEYWORDS:

Activated protein C (APC); Endovascular restorative neurosurgery; Mechanical neurothrombectomy; Neuroprotection; Neurorestoration; Stroke; Thrombolysis

PMID:
28923278
PMCID:
PMC5857404
[Available on 2019-05-15]
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.09.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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