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Sleep Med. 2017 Sep;37:54-59. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2017.06.005. Epub 2017 Jun 24.

Moving into poverty during childhood is associated with later sleep problems.

Author information

1
Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway; The Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Uni Research Health, Bergen, Norway; Department of Research & Innovation, Helse Fonna HF, Haugesund, Norway. Electronic address: borge.sivertsen@fhi.no.
2
The Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Uni Research Health, Bergen, Norway.
3
Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway; Center for Alcohol & Drug Research, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway.
4
Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

A social gradient in sleep has been demonstrated across the life span, but previous studies have been cross-sectional and used self-reported socioeconomic status (SES) indicators. Using registry-based data on family income trajectories, the current study examined the association between relative poverty in childhood and subsequent sleep in adolescence.

METHODS:

Data on family income during 2004-2010 was obtained from the National Income Registry. Poverty was defined as household income <60% of the mean national income. Information on self-reported sleep was based the youth@hordaland-survey (n = 8873) conducted in 2012 when the adolescents were 16-19 years old. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify trajectories of family household poverty, and analysis of variance and general linear models were used to examine associations between income trajectories and sleep, adjusting for confounders.

RESULTS:

LCA identified four classes: 'never poor', two classes characterized by moving in or out of poverty, and 'chronically poor'. Compared to the 'never poor' group, adolescents from families in the 'moving into poverty' group displayed worse sleep across most sleep measures, including shorter sleep, lower sleep efficiency, and more nocturnal wake time (but not sleep onset latency). Neither adolescents from families who had moved out of poverty by increasing family income, nor the 'chronically poor' group differed significantly from the reference group.

CONCLUSIONS:

The study found that downward socioeconomic mobility was associated with increased adolescent sleep problems. More studies are required on the mechanisms that may account for the association, to find targeted and effective strategies to prevent short sleep duration in adolescents from families with unstable financial circumstances.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescence; Longitudinal; Poverty; Sleep

PMID:
28899540
DOI:
10.1016/j.sleep.2017.06.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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