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Mol Neurobiol. 2018 Jun;55(6):5059-5074. doi: 10.1007/s12035-017-0704-2. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Benzophenone-3 Impairs Autophagy, Alters Epigenetic Status, and Disrupts Retinoid X Receptor Signaling in Apoptotic Neuronal Cells.

Author information

1
Department of Experimental Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna Street 12, 31-343, Krakow, Poland.
2
Department of Cell Biology and Imaging, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa Street 9, 30-387, Krakow, Poland.
3
Department of Experimental Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna Street 12, 31-343, Krakow, Poland. kajta@if-pan.krakow.pl.

Abstract

Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is the most widely used compound among UV filters for the prevention of photodegradation. Population studies have demonstrated that it penetrates through the skin and crosses the blood-brain barrier. However, little is known about the impact of BP-3 on the nervous system and its possible adverse effects on the developing brain. We demonstrated that the neurotoxic effects of BP-3 were accompanied by the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by apoptosis-related caspase-3 activation and apoptotic body formation as well as the inhibition of autophagy, as determined by the downregulation of autophagy-related genes, decreased autophagosome formation, and reduced LC3B-to-LC3A ratio. In this study, we showed for the first time that the BP-3-induced apoptosis of neuronal cells is mediated via the stimulation of RXRα signaling and the attenuation of RXRβ/RXRγ signaling, as demonstrated using selective antagonist and specific siRNAs as well as by measuring the mRNA and protein expression levels of the receptors. This study also demonstrated that environmentally relevant concentrations of BP-3 were able to inhibit autophagy and disrupt the epigenetic status of neuronal cells, as evidenced by the inhibition of global DNA methylation as well as the reduction of histone deacetylases and histone acetyl transferases activity, which may increase the risks of neurodevelopmental abnormalities and/or neural degenerations.

KEYWORDS:

Autophagy; BP-3; Benzophenone-3; Primary neuronal cell cultures; RXR; Retinoid X receptors

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