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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Sep 22;61(10). pii: e01103-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01103-17. Print 2017 Oct.

The Fluorocycline TP-271 Is Efficacious in Models of Aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Infection in BALB/c Mice and Cynomolgus Macaques.

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Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts, USA
Battelle, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
CUBRC, Inc., Buffalo, New York, USA.
United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland, USA.
Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts, USA.


The fluorocycline TP-271 was evaluated in mouse and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of inhalational anthrax. BALB/c mice were exposed by nose-only aerosol to Bacillus anthracis Ames spores at a level of 18 to 88 lethal doses sufficient to kill 50% of exposed individuals (LD50). When 21 days of once-daily dosing was initiated at 24 h postchallenge (the postexposure prophylaxis [PEP] study), the rates of survival for the groups treated with TP-271 at 3, 6, 12, and 18 mg/kg of body weight were 90%, 95%, 95%, and 84%, respectively. When 21 days of dosing was initiated at 48 h postchallenge (the treatment [Tx] study), the rates of survival for the groups treated with TP-271 at 6, 12, and 18 mg/kg TP-271 were 100%, 91%, and 81%, respectively. No deaths of TP-271-treated mice occurred during the 39-day posttreatment observation period. In the NHP model, cynomolgus macaques received an average dose of 197 LD50 of B. anthracis Ames spore equivalents using a head-only inhalation exposure chamber, and once-daily treatment of 1 mg/kg TP-271 lasting for 14 or 21 days was initiated within 3 h of detection of protective antigen (PA) in the blood. No (0/8) animals in the vehicle control-treated group survived, whereas all 8 infected macaques treated for 21 days and 4 of 6 macaques in the 14-day treatment group survived to the end of the study (56 days postchallenge). All survivors developed toxin-neutralizing and anti-PA IgG antibodies, indicating an immunologic response. On the basis of the results obtained with the mouse and NHP models, TP-271 shows promise as a countermeasure for the treatment of inhalational anthrax.


Bacillus anthracis; TP-271; anthrax; fluorocycline

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