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Neurobiol Aging. 2017 Oct;58:140-150. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.06.025. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Transcranial low-level laser therapy improves brain mitochondrial function and cognitive impairment in D-galactose-induced aging mice.

Author information

1
Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Medical Physics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
2
Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
3
Department of Medical Physics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Medical Bioengineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
4
Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: Saeed.sadigetegad@gmail.com.

Abstract

Mitochondrial function plays a key role in the aging-related cognitive impairment, and photoneuromodulation of mitochondria by transcranial low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may contribute to its improvement. This study focused on the transcranial LLLT effects on the D-galactose (DG)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and cognitive impairment in mice. For this purpose, red and near-infrared (NIR) laser wavelengths (660 and 810 nm) at 2 different fluencies (4 and 8 J/cm2) at 10-Hz pulsed wave mode were administrated transcranially 3 d/wk in DG-received (500 mg/kg/subcutaneous) mice model of aging for 6 weeks. Spatial and episodic-like memories were assessed by the Barnes maze and What-Where-Which (WWWhich) tasks. Brain tissues were analyzed for mitochondrial function including active mitochondria, adenosine triphosphate, and reactive oxygen species levels, as well as membrane potential and cytochrome c oxidase activity. Apoptosis-related biomarkers, namely, Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 were evaluated by Western blotting method. Laser treatments at wavelengths of 660 and 810 nm at 8 J/cm2 attenuated DG-impaired spatial and episodic-like memories. Also, results showed an obvious improvement in the mitochondrial function aspects and modulatory effects on apoptotic markers in aged mice. However, same wavelengths at the fluency of 4 J/cm2 had poor effect on the behavioral and molecular indexes in aging model. This data indicates that transcranial LLLT at both of red and NIR wavelengths at the fluency of 8 J/cm2 has a potential to ameliorate aging-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and cognitive impairment.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Apoptosis; D-galactose; Episodic-like memory; Mitochondrial function; Spatial memory; Transcranial low-level laser therapy

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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