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Eye Brain. 2017 Jun 29;9:13-21. doi: 10.2147/EB.S140481. eCollection 2017.

Visual consequences of medications for multiple sclerosis: the good, the bad, the ugly, and the unknown.

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Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
Department of Neurology & Neuroscience, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with vision changes both due to MS effects on visual pathways and due to medication effects on the visual pathways. Distinguishing the causes of vision change are critical to appropriate diagnosis and management. The incidence, presentation, and treatment of fingolimod-associated macular edema, alemtuzumab-associated thyroid orbitopathy, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in MS patients are reviewed. Evidence for beneficial effects of acute, chronic, and symptomatic MS medications on vision is presented.


macular edema; optic nerve; optic neuritis; progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; thyroid eye disease

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