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Science. 2017 Apr 28;356(6336):442-445. doi: 10.1126/science.aam5298.

Ancient genomic changes associated with domestication of the horse.

Author information

1
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350K Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Institut Jacques Monod, UMR 7592 CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris cedex 13, France.
3
Bioinformatics Center, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2200N Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
Laboratoire d'Anthropobiologie Moléculaire et d'Imagerie de Synthèse, CNRS UMR 5288, Université de Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier, 31000 Toulouse, France.
5
Department of Biotechnology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.
6
Institute of Genetics, University of Bern, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.
7
Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-UPF), Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
8
Center for Genomic Regulation (CNAG-CRG), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Baldiri i Reixac 4, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
9
National High-Throughput DNA Sequencing Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
10
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Sorbonne Universités, Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique, Sociétés, Pratiques et Environnements (UMR 7209), 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France.
11
Agroscope, Swiss National Stud Farm, 1580 Avenches, Switzerland.
12
Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
13
Branch of Institute of Archaeology Margulan, Republic Avenue 24-405, 010000 Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan.
14
CNRS, UMR 7041 Archéologie et Sciences de l'Antiquité, Archéologie de l'Asie Centrale, Maison René Ginouvès, 21 allée de l'Université, 92023 Nanterre, France.
15
German Archaeological Institute, Department of Natural Sciences, Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany.
16
University of Potsdam, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.
17
Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin 10315, Germany.
18
Institut de Médecine Légale, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
19
Catalan Institution of Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Passeig de Lluís Companys, 23, 08010, Barcelona, Spain.
20
Institut Médico-Légal, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
21
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350K Copenhagen, Denmark. lorlando@snm.ku.dk.

Abstract

The genomic changes underlying both early and late stages of horse domestication remain largely unknown. We examined the genomes of 14 early domestic horses from the Bronze and Iron Ages, dating to between ~4.1 and 2.3 thousand years before present. We find early domestication selection patterns supporting the neural crest hypothesis, which provides a unified developmental origin for common domestic traits. Within the past 2.3 thousand years, horses lost genetic diversity and archaic DNA tracts introgressed from a now-extinct lineage. They accumulated deleterious mutations later than expected under the cost-of-domestication hypothesis, probably because of breeding from limited numbers of stallions. We also reveal that Iron Age Scythian steppe nomads implemented breeding strategies involving no detectable inbreeding and selection for coat-color variation and robust forelimbs.

PMID:
28450643
DOI:
10.1126/science.aam5298
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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