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Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2017 Jan 21;7:56-60. doi: 10.1016/j.dadm.2016.12.011. eCollection 2017.

Peripheral inflammatory markers indicate microstructural damage within periventricular white matter hyperintensities in Alzheimer's disease: A preliminary report.

Author information

1
Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Unit, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; University Health Network Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
2
Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Unit, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
3
Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Unit, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
4
Departamento Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
5
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Anxiety and Mood Disorders Department, Centre for Addictions and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
6
Department of Clinical Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
7
Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
8
Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
9
Department of Medicine (Neurology Division), McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
10
Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; University Health Network Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
11
Department of Medicine (Neurology Division), University of Northern British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada.
12
Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Unit, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Clinical Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medicine (Neurology Division), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) presumed to reflect cerebral small vessel disease and increased peripheral inflammatory markers are found commonly in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their interrelationships remain unclear.

METHODS:

Inflammatory markers were assayed in 54 elderly participants (n = 16 with AD). Periventricular WMH were delineated from T1, T2/proton density, and fluid-attenuated magnetic resonance imaging using semiautomated fuzzy lesion extraction and coregistered with maps of fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of microstructural integrity assessed using diffusion tensor imaging.

RESULTS:

Mean FA within periventricular WMH was associated with an inflammatory factor consisting of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor, IL-10, IL-21, and IL-23 in patients with AD (ρ = -0.703, P = .002) but not in healthy elderly (ρ = 0.217, P = .190). Inflammation was associated with greater FA in deep WMH in healthy elderly (ρ = 0.425, P = .008) but not in patients with AD (ρ = 0.174, P = .520).

DISCUSSION:

Peripheral inflammatory markers may be differentially related to microstructural characteristics within the white matter affected by cerebral small vessel disease in elders with and without AD.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; Cerebrovascular disease; Confirmatory factor analysis; Cytokine; Diffusion tensor imaging; Inflammation; Microstructure; Small vessel disease; White matter disease

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