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Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 27;7:43481. doi: 10.1038/srep43481.

Antibiotic treatment at delivery shapes the initial oral microbiome in neonates.

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School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Australia.
UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Australia.
Obstetric Medicine, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane Australia.
Mater Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Australia.
Diamantina Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Australia.
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Australia.


Oral microorganisms are important determinants of health and disease. The source of the initial neonatal microbiome and the factors dictating initial human oral microbiota development are unknown. This study aimed to investigate this in placental, oral and gut microbiome profiles from 36 overweight or obese mother-baby dyads as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Expression of five antibiotic resistance genes of the β-lactamase class was analysed in the infant oral microbiota samples by QPCR. The neonatal oral microbiota was 65.35% of maternal oral, 3.09% of placental, 31.56% of unknown and 0% of maternal gut origin. Two distinct neonatal oral microbiota profiles were observed: one strongly resembling the maternal oral microbiota and one with less similarity. Maternal exposure to intrapartum antibiotics explained the segregation of the profiles. Families belonging to Proteobacteria were abundant after antibiotics exposure while the families Streptococcaceae, Gemellaceae and Lactobacillales dominated in unexposed neonates. 26% of exposed neonates expressed the Vim-1 antibiotic resistance gene. These findings indicate that maternal intrapartum antibiotic treatment is a key regulator of the initial neonatal oral microbiome.

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