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Nature. 2017 Feb 23;542(7642):433-438. doi: 10.1038/nature21062. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Prevalence and architecture of de novo mutations in developmental disorders.

Collaborators (302)

McRae JF, Clayton S, Fitzgerald TW, Kaplanis J, Prigmore E, Rajan D, Sifrim A, Aitken S, Akawi N, Alvi M, Ambridge K, Barrett DM, Bayzetinova T, Jones P, Jones WD, King D, Krishnappa N, Mason LE, Singh T, Tivey AR, Ahmed M, Anjum U, Archer H, Armstrong R, Awada J, Balasubramanian M, Banka S, Baralle D, Barnicoat A, Batstone P, Baty D, Bennett C, Berg J, Bernhard B, Bevan AP, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Blair E, Blyth M, Bohanna D, Bourdon L, Bourn D, Bradley L, Brady A, Brent S, Brewer C, Brunstrom K, Bunyan DJ, Burn J, Canham N, Castle B, Chandler K, Chatzimichali E, Cilliers D, Clarke A, Clasper S, Clayton-Smith J, Clowes V, Coates A, Cole T, Colgiu I, Collins A, Collinson MN, Connell F, Cooper N, Cox H, Cresswell L, Cross G, Crow Y, D'Alessandro M, Dabir T, Davidson R, Davies S, de Vries D, Dean J, Deshpande C, Devlin G, Dixit A, Dobbie A, Donaldson A, Donnai D, Donnelly D, Donnelly C, Douglas A, Douzgou S, Duncan A, Eason J, Ellard S, Ellis I, Elmslie F, Evans K, Everest S, Fendick T, Fisher R, Flinter F, Foulds N, Fry A, Fryer A, Gardiner C, Gaunt L, Ghali N, Gibbons R, Gill H, Goodship J, Goudie D, Gray E, Green A, Greene P, Greenhalgh L, Gribble S, Harrison R, Harrison L, Harrison V, Hawkins R, He L, Hellens S, Henderson A, Hewitt S, Hildyard L, Hobson E, Holden S, Holder M, Holder S, Hollingsworth G, Homfray T, Humphreys M, Hurst J, Hutton B, Ingram S, Irving M, Islam L, Jackson A, Jarvis J, Jenkins L, Johnson D, Jones E, Josifova D, Joss S, Kaemba B, Kazembe S, Kelsell R, Kerr B, Kingston H, Kini U, Kinning E, Kirby G, Kirk C, Kivuva E, Kraus A, Kumar D, Kumar VK, Lachlan K, Lam W, Lampe A, Langman C, Lees M, Lim D, Longman C, Lowther G, Lynch SA, Magee A, Maher E, Male A, Mansour S, Marks K, Martin K, Maye U, McCann E, McConnell V, McEntagart M, McGowan R, McKay K, McKee S, McMullan DJ, McNerlan S, McWilliam C, Mehta S, Metcalfe K, Middleton A, Miedzybrodzka Z, Miles E, Mohammed S, Montgomery T, Moore D, Morgan S, Morton J, Mugalaasi H, Murday V, Murphy H, Naik S, Nemeth A, Nevitt L, Newbury-Ecob R, Norman A, O'Shea R, Ogilvie C, Ong KR, Park SM, Parker MJ, Patel C, Paterson J, Payne S, Perrett D, Phipps J, Pilz DT, Pollard M, Pottinger C, Poulton J, Pratt N, Prescott K, Price S, Pridham A, Procter A, Purnell H, Quarrell O, Ragge N, Rahbari R, Randall J, Rankin J, Raymond L, Rice D, Robert L, Roberts E, Roberts J, Roberts P, Roberts G, Ross A, Rosser E, Saggar A, Samant S, Sampson J, Sandford R, Sarkar A, Schweiger S, Scott R, Scurr I, Selby A, Seller A, Sequeira C, Shannon N, Sharif S, Shaw-Smith C, Shearing E, Shears D, Sheridan E, Simonic I, Singzon R, Skitt Z, Smith A, Smith K, Smithson S, Sneddon L, Splitt M, Squires M, Stewart F, Stewart H, Straub V, Suri M, Sutton V, Swaminathan GJ, Sweeney E, Tatton-Brown K, Taylor C, Taylor R, Tein M, Temple IK, Thomson J, Tischkowitz M, Tomkins S, Torokwa A, Treacy B, Turner C, Turnpenny P, Tysoe C, Vandersteen A, Varghese V, Vasudevan P, Vijayarangakannan P, Vogt J, Wakeling E, Wallwark S, Waters J, Weber A, Wellesley D, Whiteford M, Widaa S, Wilcox S, Wilkinson E, Williams D, Williams N, Wilson L, Woods G, Wragg C, Wright M, Yates L, Yau M, Nellåker C, Parker M, Firth HV, Wright CF, FitzPatrick DR, Barrett JC, Hurles ME.

Abstract

The genomes of individuals with severe, undiagnosed developmental disorders are enriched in damaging de novo mutations (DNMs) in developmentally important genes. Here we have sequenced the exomes of 4,293 families containing individuals with developmental disorders, and meta-analysed these data with data from another 3,287 individuals with similar disorders. We show that the most important factors influencing the diagnostic yield of DNMs are the sex of the affected individual, the relatedness of their parents, whether close relatives are affected and the parental ages. We identified 94 genes enriched in damaging DNMs, including 14 that previously lacked compelling evidence of involvement in developmental disorders. We have also characterized the phenotypic diversity among these disorders. We estimate that 42% of our cohort carry pathogenic DNMs in coding sequences; approximately half of these DNMs disrupt gene function and the remainder result in altered protein function. We estimate that developmental disorders caused by DNMs have an average prevalence of 1 in 213 to 1 in 448 births, depending on parental age. Given current global demographics, this equates to almost 400,000 children born per year.

PMID:
28135719
PMCID:
PMC6016744
DOI:
10.1038/nature21062
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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