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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2017 Feb;18(2):127-136. doi: 10.1038/nrm.2016.149. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Necroptosis in development, inflammation and disease.

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Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, São Paulo 05652-900, Brazil.
Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.
Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.


In the early 2000s, receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), a molecule already recognized as an important regulator of cell survival, inflammation and disease, was attributed an additional function: the regulation of a novel cell death pathway that came to be known as necroptosis. Subsequently, the related kinase RIPK3 and its substrate mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) were also implicated in the necroptotic pathway, and links between this pathway and apoptosis were established. In this Timeline article, we outline the discoveries that have helped to identify the roles of RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL and other regulators of necroptosis, and how they interact to determine cell fate.

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