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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 Jan;56(1):67-78. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2016.10.009. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Neural Markers in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder.

Author information

1
Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD; San Diego State University and San Diego State University/University of California San Diego Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology. Electronic address: jillian.wiggins@sdsu.edu.
2
Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
3
Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD; Catholic University of America, Washington, DC.
4
Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD; University of Denver.
5
Scientific and Statistical Computing Core, NIMH/NIH.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heritable. Neuroimaging studies comparing unaffected youth at high familial risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree relative with the disorder; termed "high-risk" [HR]) to "low-risk" (LR) youth (i.e., those without a first-degree relative with BD) and to patients with BD may help identify potential brain-based markers associated with risk (i.e., regions where HR+BD≠LR), resilience (HR≠BD+LR), or illness (BD≠HR+LR).

METHOD:

During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 99 youths (i.e., adolescents and young adults) aged 9.8 to 24.8 years (36 BD, 22 HR, 41 LR) performed a task probing face emotion labeling, previously shown to be impaired behaviorally in youth with BD and HR youth.

RESULTS:

We found three patterns of results. Candidate risk endophenotypes (i.e., where BD and HR shared deficits) included dysfunction in higher-order face processing regions (e.g., middle temporal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Candidate resilience markers and disorder sequelae (where HR and BD, respectively, show unique alterations relative to the other two groups) included different patterns of neural responses across other regions mediating face processing (e.g., fusiform), executive function (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus), and social cognition (e.g., default network, superior temporal sulcus, temporo-parietal junction).

CONCLUSION:

If replicated in longitudinal studies and with additional populations, neural patterns suggesting risk endophenotypes could be used to identify individuals at risk for BD who may benefit from prevention measures. Moreover, information about risk and resilience markers could be used to develop novel treatments that recruit neural markers of resilience and attenuate neural patterns associated with risk. Clinical trial registration information-Studies of Brain Function and Course of Illness in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Brain Imaging and Treatment Study; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00025935 and NCT00006177.

KEYWORDS:

adolescence; bipolar; brain; endophenotype; risk

PMID:
27993231
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaac.2016.10.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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