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Sci Rep. 2016 Nov 10;6:36563. doi: 10.1038/srep36563.

Fucose-containing fraction of Ling-Zhi enhances lipid rafts-dependent ubiquitination of TGFβ receptor degradation and attenuates breast cancer tumorigenesis.

Tsao SM1, Hsu HY1,2,3.

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Department of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
The Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
Program in Molecular Medicine, National Yang-Ming University and Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.


Ganoderma lucidum exerts antitumor activity, but the mechanism of G. lucidum polysaccharides on cancer is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that a fucose-containing fraction of Ling-Zhi (FFLZ) reduced tumor size and suppressed metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, FFLZ inhibited breast cancer cell migration and altered the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. Transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFR) pathways act as key mediators to promote tumor progression and metastasis. We found that FFLZ down-regulated TGFR and downstream signaling pathways, including the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and the expression of Smad4. In an investigation of the underlying mechanisms, we found that FFLZ enhanced the Smurf2-dependent ubiquitination of TGFR by disrupting the balance of the lipid rafts, promoted the "re-localization" of the TGFR to the caveolae, and facilitated the degradation of TGFR. Together, our data indicated that FFLZ is associated with the inhibition of EMT and the prevention of metastasis by promoting ubiquitination-dependent TGFR degradation and abolishing TGFR signaling pathways. Moreover, the combination of FFLZ and trastuzumab synergistically inhibited the viability of certain trastuzumab-resistant human breast cancer cells. In summary, our current findings indicate that FFLZ is a potential therapeutic or dietary supplemental agent for cancer patients and that it functions via the caveolin-1/Smad7/Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin-mediated degradation of TGFR.

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