Send to

Choose Destination
Bioessays. 2016 Nov;38(11):1123-1129. doi: 10.1002/bies.201600127. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Generating human serotonergic neurons in vitro: Methodological advances.

Author information

Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.


Technologies for deriving human neurons in vitro have transformed our ability to study cellular and molecular components of human neurotransmission. Three groups, including our own, have recently published methods for efficiently generating human serotonergic neurons in vitro. Remarkably, serotonergic neurons derived from each method robustly produce serotonin, express raphe genes, are electrically active, and respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in vitro. Two of the methods utilize transdifferentiation technology by overexpressing key serotonergic transcription factors. The third and most recent method involves differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to serotonergic neurons using developmental patterning cues. In this mini-review, we briefly describe the developmental programs governing serotonergic specification in vivo and how they have been harnessed to achieve serotonergic differentiation in vitro. We discuss the distinct and overlapping features of the recently published methodologies and their value in the context of in vitro disease modeling. Also see the video abstract here.


SSRI; antidepressants; direct conversion; iPSC; neuropsychiatric disorders; pluripotent stem cells; serotonergic differentiation

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center