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J Nucl Med. 2017 Mar;58(3):445-450. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.116.178483. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Radiation Dosimetry for 177Lu-PSMA I&T in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Absorbed Dose in Normal Organs and Tumor Lesions.

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Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
Department of Urology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
Chair of Pharmaceutical Radiochemistry, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; and.
Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany


Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioligand therapy is increasingly used in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We aimed to estimate the absorbed doses for normal organs and tumor lesions using 177Lu-PSMA I&T (I&T is imaging and therapy) in patients undergoing up to 4 cycles of radioligand therapy. Results were compared with pretherapeutic Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[68Ga(HBEDCC)] (68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC) PET. Methods: A total of 34 cycles in 18 patients were analyzed retrospectively. In 15 patients the first, in 9 the second, in 5 the third, and in 5 the fourth cycle was analyzed, respectively. Whole-body scintigraphy was performed at least between 30-120 min, 24 h, and 6-8 d after administration. Regions of interest covering the whole body, organs, and up to 4 tumor lesions were drawn. Organ and tumor masses were derived from pretherapeutic 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. Absorbed doses for individual cycles were calculated using OLINDA/EXM. SUVs from pretherapeutic PET were compared with absorbed doses and with change of SUV. Results: The mean whole-body effective dose for all cycles was 0.06 ± 0.03 Sv/GBq. The mean absorbed organ doses were 0.72 ± 0.21 Gy/GBq for the kidneys; 0.12 ± 0.06 Gy/GBq for the liver; and 0.55 ± 0.14 Gy/GBq for the parotid, 0.64 ± 0.40 Gy/GBq for the submandibular, and 3.8 ± 1.4 Gy/GBq for the lacrimal glands. Absorbed organ doses were relatively constant among the 4 different cycles. Tumor lesions received a mean absorbed dose per cycle of 3.2 ± 2.6 Gy/GBq (range, 0.22-12 Gy/GBq). Doses to tumor lesions gradually decreased, with 3.5 ± 2.9 Gy/GBq for the first, 3.3 ± 2.5 Gy/GBq for the second, 2.7 ± 2.3 Gy/GBq for the third, and 2.4 ± 2.2 Gy/GBq for the fourth cycle. SUVs of pretherapeutic PET moderately correlated with absorbed dose (r = 0.44, P < 0.001 for SUVmax; r = 0.43, P < 0.001 for SUVmean) and moderately correlated with the change of SUV (r = 0.478, P < 0.001 for SUVmax, and r = 0.50, P < 0.001 for SUVmean). Conclusion: Organ- and tumor-absorbed doses for 177Lu-PSMA I&T are comparable to recent reports and complement these with information on an excellent correlation between the 4 therapy cycles. With the kidneys representing the critical organ, a cumulative activity of 40 GBq of 177Lu-PSMA I&T appears to be safe and justifiable. The correlation between pretherapeutic SUV and absorbed tumor dose emphasizes the need for PSMA-ligand PET imaging for patient selection.


PSMA I&T; dosimetry; prostate cancer; radioligand therapy; response

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