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Vaccine. 2016 Sep 30;34(42):5125-5131. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.08.058. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Poliovirus seroprevalence before and after interruption of poliovirus transmission in Kano State, Nigeria.

Author information

1
Department of Community Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital & Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
2
World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: vermah@who.int.
3
World Health Organization, Abuja, Nigeria.
4
National Primary Health Care Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria.
5
Department of Pediatrics, Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital, Kano, Nigeria.
6
Department of Pediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital & Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
7
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.
8
World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

In September 2015, Nigeria was removed from the list of polio-endemic countries after more than 12months had passed since the detection of last wild poliovirus case in the country on 24 July 2014. We are presenting here a report of two polio seroprevalence surveys conducted in September 2013 and October 2014, respectively, in the Kano state of northern Nigeria.

METHODS:

Health facility based seroprevalence surveys were undertaken at Murtala Mohammad Specialist Hospital, Kano. Parents or guardians of children aged 6-9months, 36-47months, 5-9years and 10-14years in 2013 and 6-9months and 19-22months (corresponding to 6-9months range at the time of 2013 survey) in 2014 presenting to the outpatient department, were approached for participation, screened for eligibility and asked to provide informed consent. A questionnaire was administered and a blood sample collected for polio neutralization assay.

RESULTS:

Among subjects aged 6-9months in the 2013 survey, seroprevalence was 58% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51-66%) to poliovirus type 1, 42% (95% CI 34-50%) to poliovirus type 2, and 52% (95% CI 44-60%) to poliovirus type 3. Among children 36-47months and older, seroprevalence was 85% or higher for all three serotypes. In 2014, seroprevalence in 6-9month infants was 72% (95% CI 65-79%) for type 1, 59% (95% CI 52-66%) for type 2, and 65% (95% CI 57-72%) for type 3 and in 19-22months, 80% (95% CI 74-85%), 57% (49-63%) and 78% (71-83%) respectively. Seroprevalence was positively associated with history of increasing oral poliovirus vaccine doses.

CONCLUSIONS:

There was significant improvement in seroprevalence in 2014 over the 2013 levels indicating a positive impact of recent programmatic interventions. However the continued low seroprevalence in 6-9month age is a concern and calls for improved immunization efforts to sustain the polio-free Nigeria.

KEYWORDS:

Kano; Nigeria; Oral poliovirus vaccine; Poliomyelitis; Seroprevalence

PMID:
27591950
PMCID:
PMC5036508
DOI:
10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.08.058
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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