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Zebrafish. 2017 Feb;14(1):60-68. doi: 10.1089/zeb.2016.1287. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Comparative Developmental Toxicity and Stress Protein Responses of Dimethyl Sulfoxide to Rare Minnow and Zebrafish Embryos/Larvae.

Xiong X1,2, Luo S1,2, Wu B3, Wang J1.

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1 Institute of Hydrobiology , Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, People's Republic of China .
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing, People's Republic of China .
3 Fisheries Research Institute , Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei, People's Republic of China .


Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a widely used carrier solvent, can be toxic to test organisms and has species-specific sensitivity. In this study, the developmental toxicity and stress protein responses of DMSO to rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) with two tests were compared in the early life stage. In the first test, fertilized eggs were exposed to 0%, 0.0001%, 0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% v/v of DMSO until 3 days post hatching. In the second test, larvae from 0 to 8 d were exposed to 2% DMSO until 4 days. Our results showed that DMSO was toxic to rare minnow and zebrafish on multiple indexes, and the no-observed-effect concentrations of DMSO in both species were 1.0% and 0.001% for developmental toxicity analysis and stress protein analysis, respectively. Furthermore, rare minnow larvae were more sensitive than zebrafish to DMSO for spinal malformation. The sensitive period for induction of spinal malformation by DMSO was 0-7 d after hatch (dah) for rare minnow and 0-4 dah for zebrafish. Together, these results will provide support to the use of DMSO in ecotoxicological studies using rare minnow and will contribute to a better understanding of the toxicity of DMSO.


developmental toxicity; dimethyl sulfoxide; rare minnow; stress protein responses; zebrafish

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