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Epigenomics. 2016 Aug;8(8):1131-49. doi: 10.2217/epi-2016-0032. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of cellular reprogramming to induced pluripotency.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry & Neuropsychology, Division of Translational Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 6200 MD, The Netherlands.
2
European Graduate School of Neuroscience (EURON), Maastricht University, Maastricht, 6200 MD, The Netherlands.
3
Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
4
Laboratory of Translational Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics & Psychotherapy, University of Wuerzburg, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany.

Abstract

Enforced ectopic expression of a cocktail of pluripotency-associated genes such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The remarkable proliferation ability of iPSCs and their aptitude to redifferentiate into any cell lineage makes these cells a promising tool for generating a variety of human tissue in vitro. Yet, pluripotency induction is an inefficient process, as cells undergoing reprogramming need to overcome developmentally imposed epigenetic barriers. Recent work has shed new light on the molecular mechanisms that drive the reprogramming of somatic cells to iPSCs. Here, we present current knowledge on the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of pluripotency induction and discuss how variability in epigenetic states impacts iPSCs' inherent biological properties.

KEYWORDS:

DNA methylation; chromatin; epigenetics; histone modifications; iPSC; induced pluripotent stem cell; pluripotency; reprogramming

PMID:
27419933
PMCID:
PMC5514980
DOI:
10.2217/epi-2016-0032
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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