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J Urol. 2017 Jan;197(1):61-66. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2016.06.080. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

Cancer Specific Mortality in Men Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer before Age 50 Years: A Nationwide Population Based Study.

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Section of Urology, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Surgical Intervention Trials Unit, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Regional Cancer Centre, Uppsala Örebro, Uppsala, Sweden; Cancer Epidemiology Group, Division of Cancer Studies, School of Medicine, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
Department of Clinical Sciences, Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Division of Urological Cancer, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; CamPARI Clinic, Department of Urology, Cambridge University Hospitals, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address:



We compared clinical characteristics and cancer specific mortality in men diagnosed with prostate cancer before vs after age 50 years.


A total of 919 men 35 to 49 years old and 45,098 men 50 to 66 years old who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1998 and 2012 were identified in PCBaSe (Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden). Cancer specific mortality was compared among age groups (35 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 63 and 64 to 66 years) with and without adjusting for cancer characteristics, comorbidity and education in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model.


Clinical cancer characteristics indicated that most nonmetastatic cancer in men younger than 50 years was detected after prostate specific antigen testing. The proportion of nonmetastatic vs metastatic disease at diagnosis was similar in all age groups. A strong association between younger age and poor prognosis was apparent in men in whom metastatic disease was diagnosed before age 50 to 55 years. The crude and adjusted HRs of cancer specific mortality were 1.41 (95% CI 1.12-1.79) and 1.28 (95% CI 1.01-1.62) in men diagnosed before age 50 and at age 50 to 59 years, respectively. In men with nonmetastatic disease crude cancer specific mortality increased with older age but adjusted cancer specific mortality was similar in all age groups.


Our findings suggest that an aggressive form of metastatic prostate cancer is particularly common in men younger than 50 to 55 years. Genetic studies and trials of intensified systemic treatment are warranted in this patient group.


age groups; mortality; neoplasm metastasis; prognosis; prostatic neoplasms


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