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Brain Pathol. 2016 Sep;26(5):618-31. doi: 10.1111/bpa.12405.

Cerebral Perfusion Enhancing Interventions: A New Strategy for the Prevention of Alzheimer Dementia.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.

Abstract

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are major risk factors in the development of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These cardio-cerebral disorders promote a variety of vascular risk factors which in the presence of advancing age are prone to markedly reduce cerebral perfusion and create a neuronal energy crisis. Long-term hypoperfusion of the brain evolves mainly from cardiac structural pathology and brain vascular insufficiency. Brain hypoperfusion in the elderly is strongly associated with the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and both conditions are presumed to be precursors of Alzheimer dementia. A therapeutic target to prevent or treat MCI and consequently reduce the incidence of AD aims to elevate cerebral perfusion using novel pharmacological agents. As reviewed here, the experimental pharmaca include the use of Rho kinase inhibitors, neurometabolic energy boosters, sirtuins and vascular growth factors. In addition, a compelling new technique in laser medicine called photobiomodulation is reviewed. Photobiomodulation is based on the use of low level laser therapy to stimulate mitochondrial energy production non-invasively in nerve cells. The use of novel pharmaca and photobiomodulation may become important tools in the treatment or prevention of cognitive decline that can lead to dementia.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's; DMSO; ROCK inhibitors; Sirtuins; brain hypoperfusion; cerebral blood flow; mild cognitive impairment; neuronal energy crisis; photobiomodulation

PMID:
27324946
DOI:
10.1111/bpa.12405
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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