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Eur J Nutr. 2017 Aug;56(5):1919-1930. doi: 10.1007/s00394-016-1234-9. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Characterizing microbiota-independent effects of oligosaccharides on intestinal epithelial cells: insight into the role of structure and size : Structure-activity relationships of non-digestible oligosaccharides.

Author information

1
Division of Veterinary Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
2
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Wageningen University, 6708 WG, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
4
FrieslandCampina, 3818 LE, Amersfoort, The Netherlands.
5
Nutricia Research, 3584 CT, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
6
Division of Veterinary Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht, The Netherlands. S.braber@uu.nl.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The direct effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), including Vivinal® GOS syrup (VGOS) and purified Vivinal® GOS (PGOS), on the epithelial integrity and corresponding interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) release were examined in a Caco-2 cell model for intestinal barrier dysfunction. To investigate structure-activity relationships, the effects of individual DP fractions of VGOS were evaluated. Moreover, the obtained results with GOS were compared with Caco-2 monolayers incubated with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin.

METHODS:

Caco-2 monolayers were pretreated (24 h) with or without specific oligosaccharides or DP fractions of VGOS (DP2 to DP6) before being exposed for 12 or 24 h to the fungal toxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Transepithelial electrical resistance and lucifer yellow permeability were measured to investigate barrier integrity. A calcium switch assay was used to study the reassembly of tight junction proteins. Release of CXCL8, a typical marker for inflammation, was quantified by ELISA.

RESULTS:

In comparison with PGOS, FOS and inulin, VGOS showed the most pronounced protective effect on the DON-induced impairment of the monolayer integrity, acceleration of the tight junction reassembly and the subsequent CXCL8 release. DP2 and DP3 in concentrations occurring in VGOS prevented the DON-induced epithelial barrier disruption, which could be related to their high prevalence in VGOS. However, no effects of the separate DP GOS fractions were observed on CXCL8 release.

CONCLUSIONS:

This comparative study demonstrates the direct, microbiota-independent effects of oligosaccharides on the intestinal barrier function and shows the differences between individual galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides. This microbiota-independent effect of oligosaccharides depends on the oligosaccharide structure, DP length and concentration.

KEYWORDS:

CXCL8; Caco-2 cells; Degree of polymerization; Intestinal permeability; Non-digestible oligosaccharides; Tight junctions

PMID:
27295033
PMCID:
PMC5534205
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-016-1234-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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