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J Drug Deliv. 2016;2016:3810175. doi: 10.1155/2016/3810175. Epub 2016 Apr 17.

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid-Chitosan Dual Loaded Nanoparticles for Antiretroviral Nanoformulations.

Author information

1
School of Pharmacy, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe.
2
The Institute of Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA; Center for Integrated Global Health Sciences, Translational Pharmacology Research Core, New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA.
3
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.
4
Center for Integrated Global Health Sciences, Translational Pharmacology Research Core, New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA; School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.
5
School of Pharmacy, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Center for Integrated Global Health Sciences, Translational Pharmacology Research Core, New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA; School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.

Abstract

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) chitosan (CS) coated nanoparticles (NPs) were loaded with two antiretrovirals (ARVs) either lamivudine (LMV) which is hydrophilic or nevirapine (NVP) which is hydrophobic or both LMV and NVP. These ARVs are of importance in resource-limited settings, where they are commonly used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) treatment due to affordability and accessibility. NPs prepared by a water-oil-water emulsion and reduced pressure solvent evaporation technique were determined to have a positive zeta potential, a capsule-like morphology, and an average hydrodynamic diameter of 240 nm. Entrapment of NVP as a single ARV had a notable increase in NP size compared to LMV alone or in combination with LMV. NPs stored at room temperature in distilled water maintained size, polydispersity (PDI), and zeta potential for one year. No changes in size, PDI, and zeta potential were observed for NPs in 10% sucrose in lyophilized or nonlyophilized states stored at 4°C and -20°C, respectively. Freezing NPs in the absence of sucrose increased NP size. Drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and kinetic release profiles were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our novel nanoformulations have the potential to improve patient outcomes and expand drug access in resource-limited countries for the treatment of HIV-1.

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