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J Immunol. 2016 Jun 1;196(11):4771-82. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1502490. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

Highly Dynamic Transcriptional Signature of Distinct Macrophage Subsets during Sterile Inflammation, Resolution, and Tissue Repair.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary;
2
Institut NeuroMyoGène, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69100 Villeurbanne, France; CNRS UMR 5510, 69100 Villeurbanne, France; INSERM U1217, 69100 Villeurbanne, France;
3
INSERM U1016, Institut Cochin, 75014 Paris, France; CNRS UMR 8104, 75014 Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75006 Paris, France;
4
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary; Bioinformatics Core Facility, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary;
5
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary; Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, Orlando, FL 32827; and Hungarian Academy of Sciences - Debrecen "Lendulet" Immunogenomics Research Group, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary.
6
Institut NeuroMyoGène, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69100 Villeurbanne, France; CNRS UMR 5510, 69100 Villeurbanne, France; INSERM U1217, 69100 Villeurbanne, France; INSERM U1016, Institut Cochin, 75014 Paris, France; benedicte.chazaud@inserm.fr.

Abstract

Macrophage gene expression determines phagocyte responses and effector functions. Macrophage plasticity has been mainly addressed in in vitro models that do not account for the environmental complexity observed in vivo. In this study, we show that microarray gene expression profiling revealed a highly dynamic landscape of transcriptomic changes of Ly6C(pos)CX3CR1(lo) and Ly6C(neg)CX3CR1(hi) macrophage populations during skeletal muscle regeneration after a sterile damage. Systematic gene expression analysis revealed that the time elapsed, much more than Ly6C status, was correlated with the largest differential gene expression, indicating that the time course of inflammation was the predominant driving force of macrophage gene expression. Moreover, Ly6C(pos)/Ly6C(neg) subsets could not have been aligned to canonical M1/M2 profiles. Instead, a combination of analyses suggested the existence of four main features of muscle-derived macrophages specifying important steps of regeneration: 1) infiltrating Ly6C(pos) macrophages expressed acute-phase proteins and exhibited an inflammatory profile independent of IFN-γ, making them damage-associated macrophages; 2) metabolic changes of macrophages, characterized by a decreased glycolysis and an increased tricarboxylic acid cycle/oxidative pathway, preceded the switch to and sustained their anti-inflammatory profile; 3) Ly6C(neg) macrophages, originating from skewed Ly6C(pos) cells, actively proliferated; and 4) later on, restorative Ly6C(neg) macrophages were characterized by a novel profile, indicative of secretion of molecules involved in intercellular communications, notably matrix-related molecules. These results show the highly dynamic nature of the macrophage response at the molecular level after an acute tissue injury and subsequent repair, and associate a specific signature of macrophages to predictive specialized functions of macrophages at each step of tissue injury/repair.

PMID:
27183604
DOI:
10.4049/jimmunol.1502490
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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