Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2016 Apr;14(3):194-206. doi: 10.1089/adt.2016.701. Epub 2016 Apr 5.

Validation of a High-Throughput Screening Assay for Identification of Adjunctive and Directly Acting Antimicrobials Targeting Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

Author information

Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center , Boston, Massachusetts.


We describe development and validation of a high-throughput screen (HTS) for identifying small molecules that restore the efficacy of carbapenems (adjunctives) and/or directly inhibit growth of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Our HTS assay is based on a screen-counterscreen approach using a representative multidrug-resistant CRE strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae BIDMC12A. Specifically, we tested the ability of small molecules to inhibit bacterial growth in the presence (screen) or absence (counterscreen) of meropenem, a representative carbapenem antibiotic. Primary screening of 11,698 known bioactive compounds identified 14 with adjunctive activity and 79 with direct antimicrobial effect. Secondary screening identified triclosan as a strongly synergistic meropenem adjunctive (fractional inhibitory concentration = 0.48) and confirmed azidothymidine (AZT) (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] = 4 μg mL(-1)), NH125 (MIC = 4 μg mL(-1)), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (MIC = 8 μg mL(-1)), and spectinomycin (MIC = 32 μg mL(-1)) as potent direct antimicrobials. Spectrum of activity of AZT and spectinomycin was tested against a collection of 103 representative Enterobacteriaceae strains (≈50% CRE). AZT, a nucleoside analog used to treat human immunodeficiency virus, demonstrated an MIC50 of 2 μg mL(-1). Spectinomycin, an antibiotic used to treat gonorrhea, had an MIC50 of 32 μg mL(-1). Therefore, a significant percentage of CRE strains appeared relatively susceptible to these antimicrobials. These data identified AZT and spectinomycin as available agents warranting further study for potential treatment of multidrug-resistant CRE infection. Our results provide proof of principle and impetus for performing a large-scale HTS for discovery of novel, small-molecule adjunctives and antibacterial agents directly targeting CRE.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center