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Nat Commun. 2016 Mar 24;7:11109. doi: 10.1038/ncomms11109.

Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity-ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests.

Author information

1
Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH-3013 Bern, Switzerland.
2
Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt, Germany.
3
Faculty of Biology, Geobotany, University of Freiburg, Schänzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.
4
Forest &Nature Lab, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
5
Systematic Botany and Functional Biodiversity, University of Leipzig, Johannisallee 21, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
6
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
7
Forest Ecology and Restoration Group, Department of Life Sciences, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, 28805 Madrid, Spain.
8
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, S Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK.
9
Terrestrial Ecology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K. L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
10
INRA, UMR 1202 BIOGECO, F-33610 Cestas, France.
11
University Bordeaux, BIOGECO, UMR 1202, F-33600 Pessac, France.
12
Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Chair of Silviculture, University of Freiburg, Fahnenbergplatz, 79085 Freiburg, Germany.
13
Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Am Kirchtor 1, 06108 Halle, Germany.
14
INRA, UMR EEF, Allée de l'Arboretum, 54280 Champenoux, France.
15
Faculty of Forestry, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Universitatii Street 13, Suceava 720229, Romania.
16
Department of Agri-Food Production and Environmental Science (DISPAA), Lab. of Applied and Environmental Botany, University of Firenze, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Firenza, Italy.
17
Laboratory of Plant and Microbial Ecology, University of Liège, Botany B22, Chemin de la Vallée 4, 4000 Liège, Belgium.
18
Forest Ecology and Conservation, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK.
19
Department of Biogeography and Global Change, National Museum of Natural Sciences, MNCN, CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid, Spain.
20
Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 23, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
21
Division of Forest, Nature and Landscape, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Leuven-Heverlee, Belgium.
22
Natural Resources Institute Finland, PO Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.
23
Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zürcherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
24
INRA, UMR 1201, DYNAFOR, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France.
25
Centre of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology (CEFE UMR 5175 - University of Montpellier - University Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE), 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier, France.
26
Białowieża Geobotanical Station, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Ilji Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland.
27
School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK.
28
Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 7026, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
29
Departamento de Biología y Geología, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/ Tulipan s.n., 28933 Móstoles, Spain.

Abstract

There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, 'complementarity' and 'selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the 'jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity-multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems.

PMID:
27010076
PMCID:
PMC4820852
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms11109
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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