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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 29;113(13):3557-62. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1517903113. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Biotic homogenization can decrease landscape-scale forest multifunctionality.

Author information

1
Plant Ecology Group, Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, 3013 Bern, Switzerland; Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, 60325 Frankfurt, Germany; fonsvanderplas@gmail.com.
2
Plant Ecology Group, Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, 3013 Bern, Switzerland; Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, 60325 Frankfurt, Germany;
3
Plant Ecology Group, Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, 3013 Bern, Switzerland;
4
Faculty of Biology/Geobotany, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany;
5
Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium;
6
Systematic Botany and Functional Biodiversity Study Group, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany;
7
Forest Ecology and Restoration Group, Department of Life Sciences, University de Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain;
8
Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Terrestrial Ecology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium;
9
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR 1202, Biodiversité Gènes et Communautés (BIOGECO), F-33610 Cestas, France; University of Bordeaux, UMR 1202, Biodiversité Gènes et Communautés, F-33600 Pessac, France;
10
Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Freiburg, 79085 Freiburg, Germany;
11
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Ecologie et Écophysiologie Forestières, 54280 Champenoux, France;
12
Faculty of Forestry, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Suceava 720229, Romania;
13
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06108 Halle, Germany;
14
Laboratory of Applied and Environmental Botany, Department of Agri-Food Production and Environmental Science, University of Florence, 50144 Firenze, Italy;
15
Laboratory of Plant and Microbial Ecology, Department of Biology, Ecology, Evolution, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium;
16
Forest Ecology and Conservation, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EA Cambridge, United Kingdom;
17
Department of Biogeography and Global Change, National Museum of Natural Sciences (MNCN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28006 Madrid, Spain;
18
Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark;
19
Division of Forest, Nature, and Landscape, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven, BE-3001 Leuven, Belgium;
20
Natural Resources Institute Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland;
21
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow, and Landscape Research, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland;
22
Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545;
23
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR 1202, Biodiversité Gènes et Communautés (BIOGECO), F-33610 Cestas, France; University of Bordeaux, UMR 1202, Biodiversité Gènes et Communautés, F-33600 Pessac, France; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR 1201, Dynamics and Ecology of Forest Landscapes, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France;
24
Centre of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology UMR 5175-University of Montpellier-University Paul-Valéry Montpellier-École Pratique des Hautes Études, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France;
25
Białowieża Geobotanical Station, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, 17-230 Białowieża, Poland;
26
Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour, School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, TW20 0EX Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom;
27
Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden;
28
Systematic Botany and Functional Biodiversity Study Group, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany;
29
Department of Biogeography and Global Change, National Museum of Natural Sciences (MNCN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28006 Madrid, Spain; Departamento de Biología y Geología, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Móstoles, Spain;
30
Plant Ecology Group, Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, 3013 Bern, Switzerland; Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, 60325 Frankfurt, Germany; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Abstract

Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality.

KEYWORDS:

FunDivEUROPE; biodiversity; ecosystem functioning; spatial scale; β-diversity

PMID:
26979952
PMCID:
PMC4822601
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1517903113
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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