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J Nutr. 2016 Mar;146(3):565-75. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.223784. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Effect of Ultraviolet Light-Exposed Mushrooms on Vitamin D Status: Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Reanalysis of Biobanked Sera from a Randomized Controlled Trial and a Systematic Review plus Meta-Analysis.

Author information

Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Department of Medicine,
Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; and.
Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences.
Department of Medicine, Section of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, University Medical Centre Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.



Randomized controlled trial (RCT) data on the response of serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in healthy participants consuming UV light-exposed edible mushrooms are limited and mixed.


The objective was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of responses of serum 25(OH)D [and serum 25-hydroxyergocalciferol, 25(OH)D2, and serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, 25(OH)D3, if available] to consumption of UV-exposed mushrooms by healthy participants. Biobanked sera from one RCT (originally analyzed by immunoassay) were reanalyzed by LC-MS/MS to generate serum 25(OH)D2 and serum 25(OH)D3 data.


Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched for RCTs of UV-exposed mushrooms and data on serum 25(OH)D. Studies were screened for eligibility, and relevant data were extracted. Serum 25(OH)D data were re-analyzed by ANOVA and paired t tests.


Our structured search yielded 6 RCTs meeting our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of all 6 RCTs showed serum 25(OH)D was not significantly increased (P = 0.12) by UV-exposed mushrooms, but there was high heterogeneity (I(2) = 87%). Including only the 3 European-based RCTs [mean baseline 25(OH)D, 38.6 nmol/L], serum 25(OH)D was increased significantly by UV-exposed mushrooms [weighted mean difference (WMD): 15.2 nmol/L; 95% CI: 1.5, 28.8 nmol/L, P = 0.03, I(2) = 88%], whereas there was no significant effect in the 3 US-based RCTs [P = 0.83; mean baseline 25(OH)D: 81.5 nmol/L]. Analysis of serum 25(OH)D2 and serum 25(OH)D3 (n = 5 RCTs) revealed a statistically significant increase (WMD: 20.6 nmol/L; 95% CI: 8.0, 33.3 nmol/L, P = 0.001, I(2 =) 99%) and decrease (WMD: -13.3 nmol/L; 95% CI: -15.8, -10.7 nmol/L, P < 0.00001, I(2) = 0%) after supplementation with UV-exposed mushrooms.


Consumption of UV-exposed mushrooms may increase serum 25(OH)D when baseline vitamin D status is low via an increase in 25(OH)D2 (24.2 nmol/L) and despite a concomitant but relatively smaller reduction in 25(OH)D3 (-12.6 nmol/L). When baseline vitamin D status is high, the mean increase in 25(OH)D2 (18.3 nmol/L) and a relatively similar reduction in 25(OH)D3 (-13.6 nmol/L) may explain the lack of effect on serum 25(OH)D.


25(OH)D2; 25(OH)D3; RCT; UV exposed; edible mushrooms; vitamin D

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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