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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Jul 1;72(3):304-9. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000951.

Brief Report: HIV Drug Resistance in Adults Failing Early Antiretroviral Treatment: Results From the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 Trial.

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1Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; 2Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3Frontier Science & Technology Research Foundation, Amherst, NY; 4Specialty Molecular Division, Lancet Laboratories and BARC-SA, Johannesburg, South Africa; 5Laboratory of AIDS and Molecular Immunology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 6Y. R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Chennai, India; 7National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Agra, India; 8Science Facilitation Department, FHI 360, Washington, DC; 9Science Facilitation Department, FHI 360, Durham, NC; 10Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC; 11Southwest CARE Center, Santa Fe, NM; 12College of Medicine-Johns Hopkins Project, Blantyre, Malawi; 13Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone, Botswana; 14YRGCARE Medical Centre, VHS, Chennai, India; 15Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 16Department of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; 17Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 18Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Disease Control, Kisumu, Kenya; 19Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC; 20UNC Project-Malawi, Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, Lilongwe, Malawi; 21Serviço de Infectologia, Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 22Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National AIDS Research Institute (ICMR), Pune, India; 23Hospital Geral de Nova Iguacu and Laboratorio de AIDS e Imunologia Molecular-IOC/Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 24Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas-INI-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 25Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Soweto HPTN CRS, S


Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces HIV transmission and has health benefits. HIV drug resistance can limit treatment options and compromise use of ART for HIV prevention. We evaluated drug resistance in 85 participants in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial who started ART at CD4 counts of 350-550 cells per cubic millimeter and failed ART by May 2011; 8.2% had baseline resistance and 35.3% had resistance at ART failure. High baseline viral load and less education were associated with emergence of resistance at ART failure. Resistance at ART failure was observed in 7 of 8 (87.5%) participants who started ART at lower CD4 cell counts.

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