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J Exp Neurosci. 2016 Feb 1;10:1-19. doi: 10.4137/JEN.S33444. eCollection 2016.

Neuroprotective Effects Against POCD by Photobiomodulation: Evidence from Assembly/Disassembly of the Cytoskeleton.

Author information

1
University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
2
Brain and Mind Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
3
Australian Catholic University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
4
Olympic Park Clinic, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Abstract

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a decline in memory following anaesthesia and surgery in elderly patients. While often reversible, it consumes medical resources, compromises patient well-being, and possibly accelerates progression into Alzheimer's disease. Anesthetics have been implicated in POCD, as has neuroinflammation, as indicated by cytokine inflammatory markers. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is an effective treatment for a number of conditions, including inflammation. PBM also has a direct effect on microtubule disassembly in neurons with the formation of small, reversible varicosities, which cause neural blockade and alleviation of pain symptoms. This mimics endogenously formed varicosities that are neuroprotective against damage, toxins, and the formation of larger, destructive varicosities and focal swellings. It is proposed that PBM may be effective as a preconditioning treatment against POCD; similar to the PBM treatment, protective and abscopal effects that have been demonstrated in experimental models of macular degeneration, neurological, and cardiac conditions.

KEYWORDS:

PBM; POCD; cytoskeleton; neuroprotection; photobiomodulation; postoperative cognitive dysfunction

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