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Environ Health. 2016 Jan 14;15:4. doi: 10.1186/s12940-016-0088-1.

Workplace exposure to diesel and gasoline engine exhausts and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian men.

Author information

1
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, 6th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5T 3 M7, Canada. linda.kachuri@mail.utoronto.ca.
2
Occupational Cancer Research Centre, Cancer Care Ontario, 525 University Avenue, 3rd Floor, Toronto, ON, M5G 2 L3, Canada. linda.kachuri@mail.utoronto.ca.
3
Prevention and Cancer Control, Cancer Care Ontario, 620 University Ave, Toronto, ON, M5G 2 L7, Canada. linda.kachuri@mail.utoronto.ca.
4
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, 6th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5T 3 M7, Canada. Paul.villeneuve@carleton.ca.
5
Occupational Cancer Research Centre, Cancer Care Ontario, 525 University Avenue, 3rd Floor, Toronto, ON, M5G 2 L3, Canada. Paul.villeneuve@carleton.ca.
6
CHAIM Research Centre, Carleton University, 5435 Herzberg Laboratories, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6, Canada. Paul.villeneuve@carleton.ca.
7
INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Institut national de la recherche scientifique, University of Quebec, 531 boul. des Prairies, Édifice 12, Laval, QC, H7V 1B7, Canada. Marie-Elise.Parent@iaf.inrs.ca.
8
Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Rd, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8 M5, Canada. ken47johnson@gmail.com.
9
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, 6th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5T 3 M7, Canada. Shelley.Harris@cancercare.on.ca.
10
Occupational Cancer Research Centre, Cancer Care Ontario, 525 University Avenue, 3rd Floor, Toronto, ON, M5G 2 L3, Canada. Shelley.Harris@cancercare.on.ca.
11
Prevention and Cancer Control, Cancer Care Ontario, 620 University Ave, Toronto, ON, M5G 2 L7, Canada. Shelley.Harris@cancercare.on.ca.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) and gasoline exhaust as a possible carcinogen (Group 2B) based studies of lung cancer, however the evidence for other sites is limited. We addressed this question by investigating exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions with respect to risk of colorectal cancer in men.

METHODS:

We used data from a population-based case-control study with incident cases of colon (n = 931) and rectal (n = 840) cancer and 1360 controls from 7 Canadian provinces conducted in 1994-1997. Lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors was collected. Occupational hygienists, blinded to case-control status, assigned exposures to each job for 3 dimensions: concentration, frequency, and reliability. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, province, use of proxy respondents, smoking, body-mass index, physical activity, intake of alcohol, processed meats, and occupational exposure to asbestos and aromatic amines.

RESULTS:

Among CRC cases, 638 (36 %) were exposed to diesel and 814 (46 %) were exposed to gasoline emissions. Relative to the unexposed, elevated risks were observed among subjects ever exposed to high concentration levels of diesel emissions for colorectal cancer (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI = 0.98-2.80) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.98, 95 % CI = 1.09-3.60), but not colon cancer. Prolonged (>10 years) exposure at high concentrations was also associated with high risks of rectal cancer (OR = 2.33 95 % CI = 0.94-5.78; p-trend = 0.02). No statistically significant associations were observed for gasoline emissions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that sustained high-level exposure diesel emissions may increase the risk of rectal cancer.

PMID:
26762540
PMCID:
PMC4712563
DOI:
10.1186/s12940-016-0088-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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