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Nat Commun. 2016 Jan 12;7:10055. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10055.

Novel role for anti-Müllerian hormone in the regulation of GnRH neuron excitability and hormone secretion.

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Inserm, Laboratory of Development and Plasticity of the Neuroendocrine Brain, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Centre, U1172, Lille 59045, France.
University of Lille, FHU 1,000 Days for Health, School of Medicine and SFR DN2M, Lille 59045, France.
Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Physiology, University of Otago School of Medical Sciences, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.
Inserm U1085-IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042, France.
Service de Gynécologie Endocrinienne et Médecine de la Reproduction, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, CHU de Lille, Lille 59037, France.
Laboratoire de Biochimie &Hormonologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, CHU de Lille, Lille 59037, France.


Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays crucial roles in sexual differentiation and gonadal functions. However, the possible extragonadal effects of AMH on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis remain unexplored. Here we demonstrate that a significant subset of GnRH neurons both in mice and humans express the AMH receptor, and that AMH potently activates the GnRH neuron firing in mice. Combining in vivo and in vitro experiments, we show that AMH increases GnRH-dependent LH pulsatility and secretion, supporting a central action of AMH on GnRH neurons. Increased LH pulsatility is an important pathophysiological feature in many cases of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of female infertility, in which circulating AMH levels are also often elevated. However, the origin of this dysregulation remains unknown. Our findings raise the intriguing hypothesis that AMH-dependent regulation of GnRH release could be involved in the pathophysiology of fertility and could hold therapeutic potential for treating PCOS.

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