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Ambio. 2016 Feb;45 Suppl 2:124-39. doi: 10.1007/s13280-015-0749-2.

Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden.

Author information

1
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Box 49, Rörsjöv 1, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden. adam.felton@slu.se.
2
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Box 49, Rörsjöv 1, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden. urban.nilsson@slu.se.
3
Skogforsk, Science Park, 751 83, Uppsala, Sweden. johan.sonesson@skogforsk.se.
4
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Box 49, Rörsjöv 1, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden. annika.felton@slu.se.
5
Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, SLU, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden. jean-michel.roberge@slu.se.
6
Department of Ecology, SLU, Box 7044, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. thomas.ranius@slu.se.
7
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Box 49, Rörsjöv 1, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden. martin.ahlstrom@slu.se.
8
Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Linnaeus University, 351 95, Växjö, Sweden. johan.bergh@lnu.se.
9
Department of Ecology, SLU, Box 7044, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. christer.bjorkman@slu.se.
10
Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, SLU, Box 7026, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. johanna.boberg@slu.se.
11
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Box 49, Rörsjöv 1, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden. lars.drossler@slu.se.
12
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Box 49, Rörsjöv 1, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden. nils.fahlvik@slu.se.
13
Department of Forest Economics, SLU, Skogsmarksgränd, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden. peichen.gong@slu.se.
14
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Box 49, Rörsjöv 1, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden. emma.holmstrom@slu.se.
15
Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden. carina.keskitalo@umu.se.
16
Department of Ecology, SLU, Box 7044, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. maartje.klapwijk@slu.se.
17
SLU, Skogsmarksgränd, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden. hjalmar.laudon@slu.se.
18
SLU, Skogsmarksgränd, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden. tomas.lundmark@slu.se.
19
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Box 49, Rörsjöv 1, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden. mats.niklasson@nordensark.se.
20
Foundation Nordens Ark, Åby Säteri, 456 93, Hunnebostrand, Sweden. mats.niklasson@nordensark.se.
21
SLU, Skogsmarksgränd, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden. annika.nordin@slu.se.
22
Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87, Luleå, Sweden. maria.pettersson@ltu.se.
23
Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, SLU, Box 7026, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. jan.stenlid@slu.se.
24
Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden. anna.stens@umu.se.
25
Asa Research Station, SLU, 360 30, Lammhult, Sweden. kristina.wallertz@slu.se.

Abstract

Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

KEYWORDS:

Climate change adaptation; Ecosystem services; Forestry; Mixed-forest stand; Polyculture; Resilience

PMID:
26744048
PMCID:
PMC4705065
DOI:
10.1007/s13280-015-0749-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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