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Transp Res Rec. 2015;2516:15-21.

Evaluation of a Risk Awareness Perception Training Program on Novice Teen Driver Behavior at Left-Turn Intersections.

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University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing, Claire Fagin Hall, 418 Curie Boulevard, 414, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4217, .
The Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3535 Market St, Suite 1150, Philadelphia, PA 19104, .
220A Engineering Lab, University of Massachusetts, 160 Governors Drive, Amherst, MA 01003-2210.


Collisions at left turn intersections are among the most prevalent types of teen driver serious crashes, with inadequate surveillance as a key factor. Risk awareness perception training (RAPT) has shown effectiveness in improving hazard anticipation for latent hazards. The goal of this study was to determine if RAPT version 3 (RAPT-3) improved intersection turning behaviors among novice teen drivers when the hazards were not latent and frequent glancing to multiple locations at the intersection was needed. Teens aged 16-18 with ≤180 days of licensure were randomly assigned to: 1) an intervention group (n=18) that received RAPT-3 (Trained); or 2) a control group (n=19) that received no training (Untrained). Both groups completed RAPT-3 Baseline Assessment and the Trained group completed RAPT-3 Training and RAPT-3 Post Assessment. Training effects were evaluated on a driving simulator. Simulator (gap selection errors and collisions) and eye tracker (traffic check errors) metrics from six left-turn stop sign controlled intersections in the Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) were analyzed. The Trained group scored significantly higher in RAPT-3 Post Assessment than RAPT-3 Baseline Assessment (p< 0.0001). There were no significant differences in either traffic check and gap selection errors or collisions among Trained and Untrained teens in the SDA. Though Trained teens learned about hazard anticipation related to latent hazards, learning did not translate to performance differences in left-turn stop sign controlled intersections where the hazards were not latent. Our findings point to further research to better understand the challenges teens have with left turn intersections.


Driving simulation; hazard anticipation; hazard recognition; intersection crashes; novice teen drivers; risk awareness training

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