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Dis Markers. 2015;2015:818570. doi: 10.1155/2015/818570. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Gamma-Glutamyltransferase: A Predictive Biomarker of Cellular Antioxidant Inadequacy and Disease Risk.

Author information

1
Health-e-Iron, LLC, 2800 Waymaker Way, No. 12, Austin, TX 78746, USA ; Iron Disorders Institute, Greenville, SC 29615, USA.
2
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Abstract

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a well-established serum marker for alcohol-related liver disease. However, GGT's predictive utility applies well beyond liver disease: elevated GGT is linked to increased risk to a multitude of diseases and conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and all-cause mortality. The literature from multiple population groups worldwide consistently shows strong predictive power for GGT, even across different gender and ethnic categories. Here, we examine the relationship of GGT to other serum markers such as serum ferritin (SF) levels, and we suggest a link to exposure to environmental and endogenous toxins, resulting in oxidative and nitrosative stress. We observe a general upward trend in population levels of GGT over time, particularly in the US and Korea. Since the late 1970s, both GGT and incident MetS and its related disorders have risen in virtual lockstep. GGT is an early predictive marker for atherosclerosis, heart failure, arterial stiffness and plaque, gestational diabetes, and various liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, other infectious diseases, and several life-threatening cancers. We review literature both from the medical sciences and from life insurance industries demonstrating that serum GGT is a superior marker for future disease risk, when compared against multiple other known mortality risk factors.

PMID:
26543300
PMCID:
PMC4620378
DOI:
10.1155/2015/818570
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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