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J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. 2015 Sep;19(3):157-64. doi: 10.5717/jenb.2015.15093001. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Effective utilization of genetic information for athletes and coaches: focus on ACTN3 R577X polymorphism.

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Sports Training Center, Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan.
Department of Exercise Physiology, Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan.


Training variants (type, intensity, and duration of exercise) can be selected according to individual aims and fitness assessment. Recently, various methods of resistance and endurance training have been used for muscle hypertrophy and VO2max improvement. Although several genetic variants are associated with elite athletic performance and muscle phenotypes, genetic background has not been used as variant for physical training. ACTN3 R577X is a well-studied genetic polymorphism. It is the only genotype associated with elite athletic performance in multiple cohorts. This association is strongly supported by mechanistic data from an Actn3-knockout mouse model. In this review, possible guidelines are discussed for effective utilization of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism for physical training.


Genotype; endurance performance; muscle phenotype; physical training; trainability

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