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Biotechnol Biofuels. 2015 Oct 20;8:169. doi: 10.1186/s13068-015-0353-5. eCollection 2015.

Inducible gene expression system by 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

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School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan, 609-735 Republic of Korea.
Department of Biochemical Engineering, College of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, 213164 China.
Contributed equally



3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical that boasts a variety of industrial applications. Gene expression systems inducible by 3-HP, if available, are of great utility for optimization of the pathways of 3-HP production and excretion.


Here we report the presence of unique inducible gene expression systems in Pseudomonas denitrificans and other microorganisms. In P. denitrificans, transcription of three genes (hpdH, mmsA and hbdH-4) involved in 3-HP degradation was upregulated by 3-HP by the action of a transcriptional regulator protein, LysR, and a cis-acting regulatory site for LysR binding. Similar inducible systems having an LysR transcriptional regulator were identified in other microorganisms that also could degrade 3-HP. A docking study showed that the 3-HP binding pocket is located between the N-terminal helix-turn-helix motif and the C-terminal cofactor-binding domain.


This LysR-regulated 3-HP-inducible system should prove useful for control of the level of gene expression in response to 3-HP.


3-Hydroxypropionic acid; Inducible; LysR; hbdH; hpdH; mmsA

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