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Res Microbiol. 2016 Feb-Mar;167(2):114-25. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2015.09.006. Epub 2015 Oct 24.

Diet drives quick changes in the metabolic activity and composition of human gut microbiota in a validated in vitro gut model.

Author information

1
Top Institute of Food & Nutrition, PO Box 557, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands; Maastricht University, School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Department of Human Biology, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands; The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, TNO, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands. Electronic address: marisol.aguirremorales@tno.nl.
2
VU University Medical Center, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: a.eckhauer@vumc.nl.
3
The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, TNO, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands.
4
VU University Medical Center, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: p.savelkoul@vumc.nl.
5
VU University Medical Center, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: D.Budding@vumc.nl.
6
Top Institute of Food & Nutrition, PO Box 557, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands; The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, TNO, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands; Beneficial Microbes Consultancy, Johan Karschstraat 3, 6709 TN Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: koen.venema@outlook.com.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to screen how rapidly the human gut microbiota responds to diet in an in vitro model of the proximal colon (TIM-2 system). Two experimental diets were provided to the gut bacteria: a high carbohydrate and a high protein diet. The metabolic response and the composition of the microbiota were compared to a control diet simulating an average western meal. Short-chain and branched-chain fatty acids (SCFA and BCFA, respectively) production, in addition to changes in the community composition (profiling), were measured. The activity of the microbiota reflected differences between diets, exhibiting a trade-off between saccharolytic and proteolytic fermentation when compared to the control. Diversity analysis revealed a phylum-specific response depending on the diet tested. Most changes in the microbiome composition occurred during the first 24 h of the experiment. The outcome of this study elucidates the fact that human gut bacteria quickly respond to changes in diet. In addition, it confirms that variations in the concentration of carbohydrates and proteins modify the activity and composition of the microbiota, and these changes can potentially have an impact on the health of the host.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary formulations; Fermentation; In vitro techniques; Microbiota; Microbiota profiling

PMID:
26499094
DOI:
10.1016/j.resmic.2015.09.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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