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Neural Regen Res. 2015 Aug;10(8):1186-90. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.162687.

Neuroimmunomodulatory effects of transcranial laser therapy combined with intravenous tPA administration for acute cerebral ischemic injury.

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Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.


At present, the only FDA approved treatment for ischemic strokes is intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator within 4.5 hours of stroke onset. Owing to this brief window only a small percentage of patients receive tissue plasminogen activator. Transcranial laser therapy has been shown to be effective in animal models of acute ischemic stroke, resulting in significant improvement in neurological score and function. NEST-1 and NEST-2 clinical trials in human patients have demonstrated the safety and positive trends in efficacy of transcranial laser therapy for the treatment of ischemic stroke when initiated close to the time of stroke onset. Combining intravenous tissue plasminogen activator treatment with transcranial laser therapy may provide better functional outcomes. Statins given within 4 weeks of stroke onset improve stroke outcomes at 90 days compared to patients not given statins, and giving statins following transcranial laser therapy may provide an effective treatment for patients not able to be given tissue plasminogen activator due to time constraints.


cellular changes; inflammation injury; ischemic stroke; laser therapy; neuromodulation

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