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Am J Kidney Dis. 2016 Apr;67(4):567-75. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.08.025. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With CKD.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.
2
Biostatistics Core, Clinical and Translational Research Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.
3
Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC.
4
Department of Clinical Psychology in Pediatrics, Clinical and Translational Research Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
5
Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address: furths@email.chop.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Neurocognitive dysfunction is a known complication in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, less is known about putative mechanisms or modifiable risk factors. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine risk factors for cognitive dysfunction in children, adolescents, and young adults with CKD compared with controls.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

The Neurocognitive Assessment and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Children and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease (NiCK) Study included 90 individuals aged 8 to 25 years with CKD compared with 70 controls.

PREDICTORS:

CKD versus control, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ambulatory blood pressure.

OUTCOMES:

Performance on neurocognitive assessment with relevant tests grouped into 11 domains defined a priori by expert opinion. Results of tests were converted to age-normalized z scores.

MEASUREMENTS:

Each neurocognitive domain was analyzed through linear regression, adjusting for eGFR and demographic and clinical variables. For domains defined by multiple tests, the median z score of tests in that domain was used.

RESULTS:

We found significantly poorer performance in multiple areas of neurocognitive function among individuals with CKD compared with controls. Particular deficits were seen in domains related to attention, memory, and inhibitory control. Adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, we found lower performance in multiple domains with decreasing eGFRs (attention: β=0.053, P=0.02; visual spatial: β=0.062, P=0.02; and visual working memory: β=0.069, P=0.04). Increased diastolic load and decreased diastolic nocturnal dipping on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were independently associated with impairments in neurocognitive performance.

LIMITATIONS:

Unable to assess changes in neurocognitive function over time, and neurocognitive tests were grouped into predetermined neurocognitive domains.

CONCLUSIONS:

Lower eGFR in children, adolescents, and young adults is associated with poorer neurocognitive performance, particularly in areas of attention, memory, and inhibitory control. Hypertension identified on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring may be an important risk factor, illustrating that neurocognitive function is an area of target-organ damage in CKD.

KEYWORDS:

Neurocognitive dysfunction; adolescents; attention; blood pressure; children; chronic kidney disease (CKD); cognitive deficit; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); hypertension; inhibitory control; memory; pediatric; renal function; young adult

PMID:
26476795
DOI:
10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.08.025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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