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J Neurosci. 2015 Aug 12;35(32):11364-73. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0754-15.2015.

Ca2+ Diffusion through Endoplasmic Reticulum Supports Elevated Intraterminal Ca2+ Levels Needed to Sustain Synaptic Release from Rods in Darkness.

Author information

1
Departments of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience and Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198.
2
Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198.
3
Departments of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience and Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 wbthores@unmc.edu.

Abstract

In addition to vesicle release at synaptic ribbons, rod photoreceptors are capable of substantial slow release at non-ribbon release sites triggered by Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) from intracellular stores. To maintain CICR as rods remain depolarized in darkness, we hypothesized that Ca(2+) released into the cytoplasm from terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can be replenished continuously by ions diffusing within the ER from the soma. We measured [Ca(2+)] changes in cytoplasm and ER of rods from Ambystoma tigrinum retina using various dyes. ER [Ca(2+)] changes were measured by loading ER with fluo-5N and then washing dye from the cytoplasm with a dye-free patch pipette solution. Small dye molecules diffused within ER between soma and terminal showing a single continuous ER compartment. Depolarization of rods to -40 mV depleted Ca(2+) from terminal ER, followed by a decline in somatic ER [Ca(2+)]. Local activation of ryanodine receptors in terminals with a spatially confined puff of ryanodine caused a decline in terminal ER [Ca(2+)], followed by a secondary decrease in somatic ER. Localized photolytic uncaging of Ca(2+) from o-nitrophenyl-EGTA in somatic ER caused an abrupt Ca(2+) increase in somatic ER, followed by a slower Ca(2+) increase in terminal ER. These data suggest that, during maintained depolarization, a soma-to-terminal [Ca(2+)] gradient develops within the ER that promotes diffusion of Ca(2+) ions to resupply intraterminal ER Ca(2+) stores and thus sustain CICR-mediated synaptic release. The ability of Ca(2+) to move freely through the ER may also promote bidirectional communication of Ca(2+) changes between soma and terminal.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:

Vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors both release vesicles at synaptic ribbons, but rods also exhibit substantial slow release at non-ribbon sites triggered by Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). Blocking CICR inhibits >50% of release from rods in darkness. How do rods maintain sufficiently high [Ca(2+)] in terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to support sustained CICR-driven synaptic transmission? We show that maintained depolarization creates a [Ca(2+)] gradient within the rod ER lumen that promotes soma-to-terminal diffusion of Ca(2+) to replenish intraterminal ER stores. This mechanism allows CICR-triggered synaptic release to be sustained indefinitely while rods remain depolarized in darkness. Free diffusion of Ca(2+) within the ER may also communicate synaptic Ca(2+) changes back to the soma to influence other critical cell processes.

KEYWORDS:

calcium imaging; calcium-induced calcium release; endoplasmic reticulum; retina; rod photoreceptors; synaptic terminal

PMID:
26269643
PMCID:
PMC4532764
DOI:
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0754-15.2015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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