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Nat Med. 2015 Aug;21(8):895-905. doi: 10.1038/nm.3914. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

The oral and gut microbiomes are perturbed in rheumatoid arthritis and partly normalized after treatment.

Author information

1
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
2
1] BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [2] Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Human Commensal Microorganisms and Health Research, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.
3
1] BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [2] Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory of Detection and Intervention of Human Intestinal Microbiome, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [3] Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
1] BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [2] Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
5
1] BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [2] Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Human Commensal Microorganisms and Health Research, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [3] School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.
6
BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.
7
1] BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [2] BGI Education Center, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.
8
1] BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [2] Qingdao University-BGI Joint Innovation College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.
9
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, USA.
10
1] BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [2] Princess Al-Jawhara Al Brahim Centre of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Disorders (PACER-HD), Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
11
Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau, China.
12
Department of Rheumatology, Guangdong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.
13
1] BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [2] Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. [3] Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau, China.

Abstract

We carried out metagenomic shotgun sequencing and a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) of fecal, dental and salivary samples from a cohort of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy controls. Concordance was observed between the gut and oral microbiomes, suggesting overlap in the abundance and function of species at different body sites. Dysbiosis was detected in the gut and oral microbiomes of RA patients, but it was partially resolved after RA treatment. Alterations in the gut, dental or saliva microbiome distinguished individuals with RA from healthy controls, were correlated with clinical measures and could be used to stratify individuals on the basis of their response to therapy. In particular, Haemophilus spp. were depleted in individuals with RA at all three sites and negatively correlated with levels of serum autoantibodies, whereas Lactobacillus salivarius was over-represented in individuals with RA at all three sites and was present in increased amounts in cases of very active RA. Functionally, the redox environment, transport and metabolism of iron, sulfur, zinc and arginine were altered in the microbiota of individuals with RA. Molecular mimicry of human antigens related to RA was also detectable. Our results establish specific alterations in the gut and oral microbiomes in individuals with RA and suggest potential ways of using microbiome composition for prognosis and diagnosis.

PMID:
26214836
DOI:
10.1038/nm.3914
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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