Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Urol. 2015 Dec;194(6):1594-600. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.07.082. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

The Risk of Distant Metastases and Cancer Specific Survival in Men with Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Values above 100 ng/ml.

Author information

1
Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
2
Regional Cancer Center, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
3
Urological Cancer Research Unit, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Urology, Cambridge Hospitals, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
4
Regional Cancer Center, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: mats.lambe@ki.se.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Current EAU (European Association of Urology) guidelines state that prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater at diagnosis indicates metastatic disease. We examined the association of prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater at diagnosis with distant metastasis and prostate cancer specific survival.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

A total of 15,635 men with prostate cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2009 who were identified in PCBaSe (Prostate Cancer Data Base Sweden 2.0) were included in a population based registry study. Prostate cancer specific survival was compared among 3 groups, including 1,879 men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater and negative imaging (M0), 5,642 with distant metastases on imaging (M1) and prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater, and 3,828 with M1 and prostate specific antigen less than 100 ng/ml. A fourth group consisted of 4,286 men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater who had not undergone imaging (Mx). The latter men were not included in the assessment of survival.

RESULTS:

Of 7,521 men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater who underwent imaging for staging 75% were classified with M1 disease. Only 59% of 3,527 men with prostate specific antigen 100 to 300 mg/ml had distant metastases on imaging. Five-year prostate cancer specific survival was 72% (95% CI 70-74) in men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater and M0, 24% (95% CI 23-25) in men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater and M1, and 39% (95% CI 37-40) in men with prostate specific antigen less than 100 ng/ml and M1.

CONCLUSIONS:

A fourth of men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater did not have distant metastases. They had twofold to threefold higher 5-year survival than men with distant metastases on imaging. Our findings strongly suggest that using prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater as an indicator of metastatic disease should be reconsidered.

KEYWORDS:

Sweden; adenocarcinoma; neoplasm metastasis; prostate-specific antigen; prostatic neoplasms

PMID:
26192253
DOI:
10.1016/j.juro.2015.07.082
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center