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Environ Res. 2015 Oct;142:264-72. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.07.003. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Urinary biomarkers of exposure and of oxidative damage in children exposed to low airborne concentrations of benzene.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, Italy. Electronic address: roberta.andreoli@unipr.it.
2
Department of Environmental Science, Security, Territory, Food and Health, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
3
CERT, INAIL Research Center at the University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
4
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
5
INAIL, DMLEL, Monteporzio Catone, Rome, Italy.
6
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Abstract

The aim of this work was to evaluate the oxidative damage to nucleic acids in children (5-11 years) associated with exposure to environmental pollutants and tobacco smoke (ETS). For each subject, urinary sampling was done twice (evening and next morning) to measure by tandem LC-MS-MS such oxidated products of nucleic acids as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua). Methyl tert-butyl ether (U-MTBE), benzene (U-Benz), and its metabolites (t,t-muconic and S-phenylmercapturic acids, t,t-MA and S-PMA, respectively) were determined as biomarkers of exposure to air pollution, and cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to ETS. Biomarkers of exposure (S-PMA and U-MTBE) and of DNA oxidation (8-oxodGuo) were dependent on the urbanization and industrialization levels and increased in the evening sample as compared to next morning (p<0.05). In both evening and next morning samples, 8-oxodGuo and 8-oxoGuo correlated with each other (r=0.596 and r=0.537, respectively, p<0.01) and with biomarkers of benzene exposure, particularly S-PMA (r=0.59 and r=0.45 for 8-oxodGuo and r=0.411 and r=0.383 for 8-oxoGuo, p<0.01). No such correlations were observed for U-MTBE and cotinine. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that 8-oxodGuo was positively associated with S-PMA at both sampling times (β=0.18 and β=0.14 for evening and next morning sampling, respectively; p<0.02) and weakly with U-MTBE (β=0.07, p=0.020) only in the evening urines. These results suggest that the selected biomarkers of exposure to benzene, particularly S-PMA, are good tracers of exposure to complex mixtures of oxidative pollutants and that the associated oxidative damage to nucleic acids is detectable even at very low levels of exposure.

KEYWORDS:

Benzene exposure; Children; Nucleic acid oxidation; Oil refinery; S-phenylmercapturic acid

PMID:
26186134
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2015.07.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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