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Curr Treatm Opt Rheumatol. 2015 Mar 1;1(1):82-105.

Management of gastrointestinal involvement in scleroderma.

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Division of Rheumatology, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio.
Division of Rheumatology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.


Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) commonly affects patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The GI involvement is quite heterogeneous varying from asymptomatic disease to significant dysmotility causing complications like malabsorption, weight loss and severe malnutrition. This review focuses on the management of GI involvement in SSc and has been categorized based on the segment of GIT involved. A brief discussion on the role of patient reported outcome measures in SSc-GI involvement has also been incorporated.


Gastrointestinal tract; bacterial overgrowth; constipation; diarrhea; dysphagia; gastric antral vascular ectasia; gastroesophageal reflux; gastroparesis; intestinal dysmotility; nutrition; scleroderma; systemic sclerosis

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