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Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015 Oct;115(10):2107-14. doi: 10.1007/s00421-015-3190-0. Epub 2015 May 23.

Sex differences in heart rate variability: a longitudinal study in international elite cross-country skiers.

Author information

1
Division of Preventive Cardiology and Sports Medicine, University Clinic for Cardiology, Inselspital University Hospital and University of Bern, 3010, Bern, Switzerland.
2
Section of Vascular Investigations, Oslo University Hospital, Bjorknes College, Oslo, Norway.
3
Diakonhjemmet Sykehus, Oslo, Norway.
4
Moscow Department of Public Health, Moscow Research and Practical Center of Medical Rehabilitation, Restorative and Sports Medicine, Moscow, Russia.
5
Swiss Olympic Medical Base, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
6
Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland.
7
Division of Preventive Cardiology and Sports Medicine, University Clinic for Cardiology, Inselspital University Hospital and University of Bern, 3010, Bern, Switzerland. matthias.wilhelm@insel.ch.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Exercise-related sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) occur with a striking male predominance. A higher sympathetic tone in men has been suggested as risk factor for SCD. Elite athletes have the highest risk for exercise-related SCD. We aimed to analyze the autonomic nervous system of elite cross-country skiers from Norway, Russia and Switzerland in supine position and after orthostatic challenge in various training periods (TP).

METHOD:

Measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) were performed on a weekly basis over 1 year using an orthostatic challenge test with controlled breathing. Main outcome parameters were the high-frequency power in supine position (HFsupine) as marker of cardiac parasympathetic activity and the low-frequency/high-frequency power ratio after orthostatic challenge (LF/HFstand) as marker of cardiac sympathetic activation. Training intensity and duration were recorded daily and expressed as training strain. The training year was divided into three TPs. An average of weekly HRV measurements was calculated for each TP.

RESULT:

Female (n = 19, VO2max 62.0 ± 4.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1), age 25.8 ± 4.3 years) and male (n = 16, VO2max 74.3 ± 6.3 ml kg(-1) min(-1), age 24.4 ± 4.2 years) athletes were included. Training strain was comparable between sexes (all p > 0.05) and changed between TPs (all p < 0.05) while no HRV parameters changed over time. There were no sex differences in HFsupine while the LF/HFstand was significantly higher in male athletes in all TPs.

CONCLUSION:

For a comparable amount of training, male athletes showed constantly higher markers of sympathetic activity after a provocation maneuver. This may explain part of the male predominance in sports-related SCD.

KEYWORDS:

Athletes; Autonomic nervous system; Endurance; Heart rate variability; Orthostatic test; Training

PMID:
26002403
DOI:
10.1007/s00421-015-3190-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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