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PLoS One. 2015 May 4;10(5):e0125996. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125996. eCollection 2015.

Developmental predictors of inattention-hyperactivity from pregnancy to early childhood.

Author information

1
INSERM U669, University Paris-Descartes and Paris-Sud, Paris, France.
2
Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom; King's College London, MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom.
3
Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy, France; INSERM UMR S953, Paris, France.
4
INSERM, UMR_S 1136, Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, Social Epidemiology Research Team, Paris, France; Sorbonne University, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 1136, Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, Social Epidemiology Research Team, Paris, France.
5
INSERM U669, University Paris-Descartes and Paris-Sud, Paris, France; International Laboratory on Child and Adolescent Health Development, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada; Tomsk state University, Tomsk, Russian Federation.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of the study was to characterize the developmental sequence of pre- and postnatal risk factors for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in preschoolers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Longitudinal data came from a French population based birth cohort study (EDEN; N = 1311 mother-child pairs followed from the pregnancy onwards). Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when participating children were 3 years of age. Potential risk factors were classified in four domains (fetal exposures and child somatic characteristics, child temperament, child neurodevelopmental status, psychosocial environment) and four periods (before pregnancy, prenatal/birth, infancy, toddlerhood). Their role as potential moderator or mediator was tested with path analysis to determine the developmental sequence.

RESULTS:

A low family socioeconomic status before pregnancy was the main environmental risk factor for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 3 years, and its effect occurred via two pathways. The first was a risk pathway, where lower SES was associated with higher maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy; then to higher maternal and child distress and dysregulation in infancy; and in turn to higher levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. The second was a protective pathway, where higher SES was associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during infancy; then to better child neurodevelopmental status in toddlerhood; and in turn to lower levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years.

DISCUSSION:

This study identified psychosocial factors at several developmental periods that represent potential targets for preventing the emergence of inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in early childhood.

PMID:
25938453
PMCID:
PMC4418828
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0125996
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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