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Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Aug;82:50-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.04.016. Epub 2015 Apr 28.

Comprehensive chemical characterization of Rapé tobacco products: Nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and flavor constituents.

Author information

1
Tobacco and Volatiles Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. Electronic address: sstanfill@cdc.gov.
2
National Health Surveillance Agency Brazil (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária), [ANVISA], Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
3
Tobacco and Volatiles Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.

Abstract

Rapé, a diverse group of smokeless tobacco products indigenous to South America, is generally used as a nasal snuff and contains substantial amount of plant material with or without tobacco. Previously uncharacterized, rapé contains addictive and harmful chemicals that may have public health implications for users. Here we report % moisture, pH, and the levels of total nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, flavor-related compounds, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for manufactured and hand-made rapé. Most rapé products were mildly acidic (pH 5.17-6.23) with total nicotine ranging from 6.32 to 47.6 milligram per gram of sample (mg/g). Calculated un-ionized nicotine ranged from 0.03 to 18.5 mg/g with the highest values associated with hand-made rapés (pH 9.75-10.2), which contain alkaline ashes. In tobacco-containing rapés, minor alkaloid levels and Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to confirm the presence of Nicotiana rustica, a high nicotine tobacco species. There was a wide concentration range of TSNAs and PAHs among the rapés analyzed. Several TSNAs and PAHs identified in the products are known or probable carcinogens according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Milligram quantities of some non-tobacco constituents, such as camphor, coumarin, and eugenol, warrant additional evaluation.

KEYWORDS:

Flavors; Nasal snuff; Nicotine; Rapé; Smokeless tobacco; Tobacco-specific nitrosamines

PMID:
25934468
PMCID:
PMC5704902
DOI:
10.1016/j.fct.2015.04.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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