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Sci Total Environ. 2015 Aug 15;524-525:74-80. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.020. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

Co-exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and toluene and their dose-effects on oxidative stress damage in kindergarten-aged children in Guangzhou, China.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China.
2
Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055, China.
3
Environmental Health Laboratory Branch, California Department of Public Health, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Richmond, CA 94804, United States.
4
Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China. Electronic address: 20001047@m.scnu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene and toluene (BT) are ubiquitous toxic pollutants in the environment. Children are sensitive and susceptible to exposure to these contaminants. To investigate the potential oxidative DNA damage from the co-exposure of PAHs and BT in children, 87 children (aged 3-6) from a kindergarten in Guangzhou, China, were recruited. Ten urinary PAHs and four BT metabolites, as well as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage)in urine, were determined using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer. The results demonstrated that the levels of PAHs and BT in children from Guangzhou were 2-30 times higher than those in children from the other countries based on a comparison with recent data from the literature. In particular, the difference is more substantial for pyrene and volatile BT. Co-exposure to PAHs and BT could lead to additive oxidative DNA damage. Significant dose-effects were observed between the sum concentration of urinary monohydroxylated metabolites of PAHs (∑OH-PAHs), the sum concentration of the metabolites of BT (∑BT) and 8-OHdG levels. Every one percent increase in urinary PAHs and BT generated 0.33% and 0.02% increases in urinary 8-OHdG, respectively. We also determined that the urinary levels of PAHs and BT were negatively associated with the age of the children. Moreover, significant differences in the levels of ∑OH-PAHs and ∑BT were determined between 3- and 6-year-old children (p<0.05), which may be caused by different metabolism capabilities or inhalation frequencies. In conclusion, exposure to PAHs or BT could lead to oxidative DNA damage, and 8-OHdG is a good biomarker for indicating the presence of DNA damage. There exists a significant dose-effect relationship between PAH exposure, BT exposure and the concentration of 8-OHdG in urine. Toddlers (3-4 years old) face a higher burden of PAH and BT exposure compared with older children.

KEYWORDS:

Age; Benzene and toluene; Co-exposure; Oxidative DNA damage; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Urinary metabolites

PMID:
25889546
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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