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Eur Psychiatry. 2015 Jul;30(5):562-8. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.03.005. Epub 2015 Apr 2.

Maternal tobacco smoking in pregnancy and children's socio-emotional development at age 5: The EDEN mother-child birth cohort study.

Author information

1
INSERM, UMR-S 1136, Department of Social Epidemiology, Pierre-Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, 75013 Paris, France; UMR-S 1136, Department of Social Epidemiology, Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC - Université Paris 06, 75013 Paris, France. Electronic address: maria.melchior@inserm.fr.
2
INSERM, UMR-S 1136, Department of Social Epidemiology, Pierre-Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, 75013 Paris, France; UMR-S 1136, Department of Social Epidemiology, Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC - Université Paris 06, 75013 Paris, France.
3
INSERM, Obstetrical, Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology Research Team, Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics (U1153), Paris-Descartes University, 75020 Paris, France; UMR-S 953, UPMC - Université Paris 06, 75020 Paris, France.
4
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Charles-Perrens Hospital, University of Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux, France; INSERM U897, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Biostatistics, prévention et prise en charge des traumatismes, Bordeaux, France.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is debate as to whether maternal tobacco use in pregnancy is related to offspring behaviour later on. We tested this association examining multiple aspects of children's behaviour at age 5 and accounting for parental smoking outside of pregnancy, as well as child and family characteristics.

METHODS:

Data come from a prospective community based birth cohort study (EDEN; n=1113 families in France followed since pregnancy in 2003-2005 until the child's 5th birthday). Maternal tobacco use in pregnancy was self-reported. Children's socio-emotional development (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems, prosocial behaviour) was assessed by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at age 5 years. Logistic regression analyses controlled for Inverse Probability Weights (IPW) of maternal tobacco use calculated based on study center, children's characteristics (sex, premature birth, low birth weight, breastfeeding), maternal characteristics (age at the child's birth, psychological difficulties and alcohol use in pregnancy, post-pregnancy depression, and smoking), paternal smoking in and post-pregnancy, parental educational attainment, family income, parental separation, and maternal negative life events.

RESULTS:

Maternal smoking in pregnancy only predicted children's high symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (sex and study center-adjusted ORs: maternal smoking in the 1st trimester: 1.95, 95%CI: 1.13-3.38; maternal smoking throughout pregnancy: OR=2.11, 95%CI: 1.36-3.27). In IPW-controlled regression models, only children of mothers who smoked throughout pregnancy had significantly elevated levels of hyperactivity/inattention (OR=2.20, 95%CI: 1.21-4.00).

CONCLUSIONS:

Maternal tobacco smoking in pregnancy may contribute directly or through epigenetic mechanisms to children's symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD symptoms; Addiction; Cigarette; Cohort study; Mental health; Pregnancy

PMID:
25843027
DOI:
10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.03.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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