Send to

Choose Destination
J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Mar 25;63(11):3053-8. doi: 10.1021/jf5063588. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

Author information

‡Department of Chemistry, Saginaw Valley State University, 7400 Bay Road, University Center, Michigan 48710, United States.
§Griffith Laboratories Limited, 757 Pharmacy Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M1L 3J8.


Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected.


Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrate; Raphanus sativus; antimicrobial peptides; bacteriocins; didecyldimethylammonium salts; salicylic acid

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for American Chemical Society
Loading ...
Support Center